Help me please.


                                      "Including me, five men love you."  


My teacher said that the reason it is not possible is that only subordinate conjunctions such as because, although, as, etc can be omitted, when participle phrases are put in front, but "and" is omitted in "including me", so it should not be put in front. Do you agree with it? Thank you.

edited Sep 08 '12 at 14:28 Hans Contributor

2 answers


This question actually helps me understand a number of your past questions. In those questions, you have been looking for a word or phrase that has been omitted but is understood. As a native English speaker, I have struggled with that idea. To me nothing has been omitted. It just a different sentence structure that achieves the same meaning.


I suspect your teacher is doing you a disservice, both by introducing the idea of omitted words and by creating rules that don't exist.


I have never encountered this "rule" about introductory participle phrases. I have searched my several reference books on grammar (all respected academic tomes published by major university presses) and cannot find such a rule. I have also done a Google search for such a rule on the internet, and again cannot find such a rule.


Now, an introductory participle phrase can be tricky. It can easily create a problem called a dangling modifier. Your teacher may have invented a method to help you avoid the problem, but I don't see how what you have described might do that.


Can you get your teacher to cite a reference for the "rule"?


I hope this helps.

link edited Sep 08 '12 at 14:48 Jeff Pribyl Grammarly Fellow

I am really impressed with your efforts and help. I think this rule is one of the wrong grammar we know here in my country, and I sent an email to her. I am waiting for her reply now. I am totally with you and so satisfied with your answer. Thank you again.

HansSep 08 '12 at 14:56

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Answer #2


I did one last check to be sure. I can only find two rules that govern the use of an introductory participial phrase.


(1) It must end with a comma before the main clause starts.

(2) It must directly modify the subject of the main clause, and that subject must occur immediately following the introductory clause (otherwise you have a dangling modifier).


Again, I find nothing about omitted subordinate conjunctions.

link answered Sep 08 '12 at 14:59 Jeff Pribyl Grammarly Fellow

May I know the Grammar books that you refer, sir.

sanjaySep 08 '12 at 15:14

Garner's Modern American Usage published by Oxford University Press (New York). Swan's Practical English Usage, also published by Oxford (but I bought this one in London). The Chicago Manual of Style (University of Chicago Press) has several long chapters on grammar. And a bit old-fashioned, but still useful: Strunk & White's The Elements of Style.

Jeff PribylSep 08 '12 at 15:22

Thank you for your quick response.

sanjaySep 08 '12 at 15:22

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