Use of adjectives and adverbs


I there a better way to make this statement?

See example:

Those include financial and human resources necessary to implement this change.
asked Jun 15 '12 at 19:07 Jennifer Schwarz New member

2 answers


There's no subject in this sentence. What includes resources?

link comment answered Jun 15 '12 at 19:29 Steven List Contributor

Well, there is a subject -- "those" -- but whether it is a sentence is another matter.


"Those" is a pronoun, the plural of "that" (Merriam-Webster New Collegiate). Pronouns can (and do) function as subjects. However, "that" often functions as a relative pronoun, and by the strict rules of grammar, relative pronouns only function to introduce relative dependent cluases. The relative pronoun relates the dependent clause to the independent clause to which it is attached. (A dependent clause, by definition, is not a complete sentence.) The relative pronoun should quicly follow its antecedent.


That said, there are many instances where "that/those" is used in a manner that does not introduce a relative clause (this sentence, for instance), and the usage manuals are full of such examples. Those are mine!


When pronouns are used, the reader must clearly understand who or what the pronoun is standing in for. In the question above, that ultimate subject is not clear -- which caused Steven to search for a subject.  It would be better to say "Those tools include ..." or something similar.


Finally, "those" is a distancing pronoun. For something close at hand, use "these tools include".

link comment answered Jun 15 '12 at 20:20 Jeff Pribyl Grammarly Fellow

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