english grammar/vocabulary




I wonder if any native speaker can correct my writing, my supervisor keeps correcting my sentences but i'm not confident at all with his correction. I wonder if a native speaker correction will me much different than his. I know it is around 700 words but i dont know where else to get help. Thanks so much.


" Noise and vibration characteristics play an important factor that contributes to customer preference in buying a car. In general, the sources of vehicle noise and vibration come from engine, aerodynamics, and tyre-road interaction. Focusing on tyre-road interaction, its noise reduction has not progressed much since the vehicle noise research inception in Europe around 1970s [14]. Tyre-road noise is regarded as the most dominant noise source of modern passenger cars as its improvement progress was slower than other noise improvements [22].

The source to tyre-road noise can be categorized into vibration mechanism and aerodynamic mechanism. Vibration mechanism includes tangential and radial tyre vibration, sidewall vibration, stick-slip, and stick-snap. Aerodynamic mechanism includes resonant events such as pipe resonance and air pumping from tyre thread as well as tyre cavity [15].


An air cavity is inherent in the pneumatic tyre design for its many advantages. However, tyre cavities have been shown as the cause for the tyre cavity resonance which induces the wheel-tyre noise and vibration that transmits to the passenger compartment. The air cavity as a source of tyre-road noise was discovered in 1990 where the cavity resonance was defined as an acoustic resonant mode that exists inside the tyre cavity [21]. Since then, many researchers have studied the phenomenon by means of analytical, experimental and finite element simulation [2, 4-14, 16-18, 20, 21, 23 , 24]. Recent finding categorized the tyre acoustic cavity resonance as the hub vibration analysis or the modal analysis aiming to understand the tyre-wheel contribution [1].

Tyre cavity resonance is characterised by high gain and sharp peak when being excited by tyre-road interaction. In previous findings, the tyre acoustic cavity resonance study was categorized as the hub vibration analysis or the modal analysis aiming to understand the tyre-wheel contribution. In addition, tyre cavity resonance induces the wheel-tyre noise and vibration that transmits to the passenger compartment. The established finding states that the energy is radiated as air-borne sound that can be heard as a pure tone from the inside of the passenger compartment. It was also demonstrated that the coupling between the tyre cavity acoustic resonance and the tyre structural resonance caused the noise level to increase in car passenger compartment. Recently, the trend of using low profile, bigger and wider tyre exaggerates tyre cavity resonance as it increases the noise magnitude. To intensify the issue, the tyre sidewall could not be made stiffer in order to balance the ride comfort even when the tyre aspect ratio was lowered [10].


The proposed project will focus on the first acoustic cavity mode of the tyre cavity resonance phenomenon which is between 200 and 250 Hz. Subsequently, the study will include an analytical derivation to predict the acoustic air cavity pressure field inside the tyre and the tyre tread velocity field when the tyre inner wall is applied with trim. The preliminary analytical derivation of torus cavity will be based on the rectangular cavity derivation from Wang [25]. By evaluating the sound pressure field inside a torus, it is possible to compare the acoustic performance of specific tire/road systems; in this case the influence of a trim on the noise radiation. Thus, the model will be extended to investigate the sound radiation from the tyre surface at the tyre cavity resonance. Finally, validation of the model will be conducted with experimental data and finite element analysis.


Following are the deliverables of the project:

1. An analytical model for torus cavity pressure field and torus outer plate velocity field when trim is applied to the torus inside surface.

2. Finite element model supported by experiment on the effects of applying trim on the tyre cavity noise, tyre surface vibration and noise radiation. Similar method will be applied to the case of trim-air gap system inside tyre cavity.

3. A physically based and validated model that can be used to determine the sound radiation of rolling tyre    within the 200- 250 Hz.


The research will aim to address the following main research questions:

1. How will the tyre acoustic cavity resonance be affected with trim application in the tyre cavity?

2. What type of trim and configuration that will be able to mitigate the tyre cavity resonance effects?

3. How the surface vibration and sound radiation from the tyre wall at the tyre cavity resonance will be  affected by trim installation?     "  

edited May 27 '12 at 22:42 zamri New member

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At the start of paragraph 3, change the "to" to "of" and try to get rid of the word "mechanism."  A mechanism is a device or a machine, and the two things mentioned are already nouns and don't need to be converted to adjectives.  You really don't need to use both "sources" and "categories."


The sources of tyre-road noise can be categorized into vibration and aerodynamics.


Or, to get rid of passive voice:


Vibration and aerodynamics are two categories of tyre-road noise.

link comment answered May 28 '12 at 11:45 Courtney Contributor

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