breakdown of irregular verbs


Dear Sirs:

If we breakdown irregular verbs p.e.

Infinitive  -  Past Tense  -  Past (Perfect) Participle

to give       -  gave             -  have given

and we call have given  the past (perfect) participle, such as most Grammar Books state in their breakdown, then, what do we call  "had given".


So to make it more understandable:

Infinitive    -  Past tense   -   ???? participle

to give            -  gave               -   had given ??   


If the answer is that "had given" is the past (perfect) participle, then I would like to know

what kind of participle is "have given".  (taken into consideration that a  present participle is formed with an ing-form.

Thank you in advance for the answer.


asked Mar 08 '14 at 15:21 Elaine N. Christiaans New member

1 answer


Have + past participle ----> Present perfect tense.

Had + Past participle-----> Past perfect tense.

link comment answered Mar 08 '14 at 15:28 Sanjay Expert

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