Ethical theory is the wrong paper. Please see paper at the bottom of the page,


Research an article on the topic of moral distress.


Moral Distress was defined early as 1984, as noted by Jameton (as cited in Guido, p. 20, 2009). The nurse knows the ethically right action and how to handle the problem, but feels powerless to do so based on the threat to his or her own moral integrity and the conflict with what might be best for the organization, other providers, other patients, the family, or even society as a whole.

The reasons for increased nursing focus on Ethics and Moral Distress in hospitals are many. Increased moral distress has been the cause for nurses leaving the profession; changing units, burnout, and at times poor nursing care being given to patients. Despite this increased attention to ethics and moral distress in nursing organizations the phenomenon still exist in most hospitals today. “Moral distress, in fact, is a sign that ethical challenges are not being addressed adequately” States (Epstein, p. 1, 2010). So moral distress occurs when the internal environment of nurses, their values and perceived obligation... “Are incompatible with the needs and prevailing views of the external work environment.” (Corley, p. 3, 2002)

2. Share your research with peers.


The Scholarly Journal I researched is titled “The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, Understanding and Addressing Moral Distress”. The two authors who wrote the Journal article were very familiar with the issue of Moral Distress. One conducts research in end- of- life issues and ethics in the Newborn Intensive Care (NICU) setting, and teaches ethics in the School of nursing in Virginia. The other author is an Assistant Professor of Nursing at the University Of Virginia, School Of Nursing and she is also a nurse practitioner. She serves as a facilitator on the Moral Distress Consult Service. Her clinical forcus is on the management of patient with HIV and AIDS, and her research focuses on the application of cellular technology to address heath disparities in rural patients.

Their work involves looking at Moral distress, which they say can occur in the day- to – day work setting and moral residue which is directly related to Moral distress because it grows quietly after each exposure to moral distress. They feel that moral residue is the sum of all of the nicks in one’s moral integrity and the self-punishment inflicted when a nurse know the right actions but does something different. (Epstein & Delgado, p. 9, 2008)

3. Discuss what type of ethical decision making model you will use in your paper.


The ethical decision making model I have chosen to use in my paper is called the 4 A’s. This approach is used to address and reduce moral distress (AACN, n.d.: Rushton, 2006). When it was designed initially it was only for critical care settings and later it was found to be useful in non-critical care as well. The 4 A’s are: ASK, AFFIRM, ASSESS, and ACT. ASK: stands for review the definition and symptoms of moral distress and ask yourself whether what you are feeling is moral distress: Are your colleagues exhibiting signs of moral distress.

AFFIRM: Affirm your feelings about the issue. What aspect of your moral interrity is being threatened? What role could you (and should you) play?

Assess: Begin to put some facts together. What is the source of your moral distress? What do you think is the “right” action and why is it so? What is being done currently and why? Who are the players in this situation? Are you ready to act?

ACT: Create a plan for action and implement it. Think about potential pitfalls and strategies to get around these pitfalls (AACN (n.d. p.7, 2005). I think this is a good Model to address moral distress and the strategies will be used to write my paper.

See example:

The ethical theory and principles that I felt was important in this situation are:.
asked Nov 10 '13 at 05:08 Melba Poole New member

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