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Classroom behaviour management has been seen as a source of concern for the school systems for several years. According to Rose & Gallup (2005) stated that the most common request for assistance from teachers has to do with the behaviour and classroom management. According to Shinn et al., (1987), explained that classrooms with regular disruptive behaviours may have less academic engagement time, and the students in disruptive classrooms may lead to lower grades and poorer on standardised tests. Attempts to control disruptive behaviours could cost teacher time at the expense of academic instruction.
Magableh and Hawamdeh (2007) described classroom management as a dichotomous element in the classroom, which can be broken down into two parts as; behavioural management and instructional management. These two elements are interconnected to form a healthy classroom atmosphere for students and teachers. Codding and Smyth (2008) said that behaviour is related to instructional management or management of learning situations, which includes: interruption of teacher, non interest of teaching material, collective answers, not participating, cheating, reading another subject during the lesson, preparing the assignments during the lesson, and not completing the assignments.
Smith & Smith (2006) emphasised that school discipline problems like violence and disruptive behaviour can contribute to teacher stress and burnout. Browsers & Tomic (2000) said that, new teachers express their concerns over the effective ways of dealing with disruptive behaviours. The competency of teachers to manage and organise classrooms; and control the student’s behaviour, will achieve both positive educational outcomes for students and teacher retention.
For effective teaching to take place, teachers would expect the learning environment to be quiet and orderly for learners to attain learning outcomes. According to Capizza (2009:1) “establishing a well organised plan for classroom management at the outset of the year is essential for a peaceful and calm classroom that is conducive to instruction and learning for students with a variety of academic, social, and behavioural needs”.
However, first of all, the teachers should provide the best learning environment such as a warm, cooperative, relaxed atmosphere and suitable materials for the students so that they can easily acquire the topic. Dodge, Rudick and Colker (2009) comment that “learning environment, the use and organisation of the space in the classroom, the daily schedule and routines, and the social and emotional atmosphere, meets students’ developmental needs. This makes all students feel safe and comfortable and that they belong. As a result, they are helped to become independent and confident learners.” Furthermore, Berliner (1988) described classroom management as those activities which are very essential in maintaining an environment that creates necessary positive conditions for learning. One of the most difficult and challenging responsibilities for classroom teachers is how to manage and control the classroom effectively for learning to take place and this can only be achieved by way of implementing learning strategies, control rules and procedures.
Effective classroom behaviour management set-up the classroom for an effective instruction which is important for the progress of school learning. Ben (2006) stated that effective classroom management strategies are very useful and important for a successful teacher’s delivery of instruction.
Students who exhibit good behaviour will be praised, believing and hoping that misbehaved students will copy good behaviours. Head (2005) and Poter (2000) criticised the behaviourist approach, which focus behaviour and not the underlying causes. Therefore, classroom management is very important to teachers and other academic professionals, which describe their efforts in making sure that every classroom lesson runs smoothly and efficiently as possible, regardless of disruptive behaviour usually caused by students.
DfES (2000), reported that children learn best through relaxation, feeling safety, engaging in activities that challenge, but which do not bring about anxiety, receive regular feedback which is positive and detailed; and believe they can be successful.
Head teachers take classroom behaviour and discipline seriously as a major concern in schools and in 2005, the New Labour government has appointed Sir Alan Steer (2005, 2008, 2009a) a Head teacher, to carry out and produce reports on discipline and behaviour in schools.
National College for School Leadership (2000) described that school head teachers have a positive direct effect on student learning outcomes. To support this, Hallinger and Heck, (1999:185) cited that, “first, school leaders achieve effects on their schools indirectly. Skilful school leaders influence school and classroom processes that have a direct effect on student learning. Second, school leaders themselves are subject to considerable influence via the norms and characteristics of the school and its environment”.
The purpose of this study is to identify the current strategies used by trainees and trainees’ perception of strategies needed to support their development as a teacher because it prevents behavioural problems by giving students specific appropriate behaviours to engage in. Colvin et al., (1993) noted that, monitoring student behaviour will enable the teacher to identify students who are engaging in appropriate behaviour and prevent misbehaviour from escalating.
This study consists of five chapters. Chapter One provides an overview study of classroom behaviour management for trainee teacher UK secondary schools. Chapter Two reviews literature that provides background to and a context for the research. Chapter Three discusses the research design, methodology, methods and data analysis, and how research ethics have been addressed. Chapter Four present findings and discussion of the related literature review presented in Chapter Two and finally, Chapter Five will provide conclusions and recommendations that emerged from the study.
1.1 RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY The basis for this study was to identify the current strategies used to support trainee teachers and to explore trainees’ perception of strategies needed to support their development as a teacher in the UK secondary schools. PGCE students are employed as respondents as they fit the profile of an ideal respondent for this research. PGCE students are students who are in training to become a qualified teacher. This study will assist trainee teachers to improve their classroom management strategies and bring about effective teaching and learning process in secondary education in the UK. Romano & Gibson (2006) described that there is the need to provide assistance to new teachers to eliminate stresses on both teachers and students. Klassen (2010:823) cited that, “Teacher’s job satisfaction is important because it influences teacher’s performance and commitment”. The second important factor is the heavy need to support veteran teachers in their attempts to tackle problematic situations in the classroom. The third most important which is the preventive intervention for children that display negative behaviours, can produce more positive outcomes (Gershenson, Lyon, & Budd, 2007).
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