For a literature reveiw, using APA formate; is this the proper way to use the citations?
this is a literature review, using APA formate, is this the way to use multiple citations?
During the last 20 years the lack of nursing education related to end of life care has caused patients to endure unnecessary suffering (Whitehead, Anderson, Redican, & Stratton, 2010; Lansdell, & Beech, 2010; Law, 2009).
If (Whitehead, Anderson, Redican, & Stratton, 2010; worked together, you need to write it: (Whitehead et al., 2010; . . .)
If Lansdell & Beech worked together, you need to write it: (. . . 2010; Lansdell & Beech, 2010; . . .)
If these authors did not collaborate, you need to write each last name with the year and separate with semi-colons.
(Whitehead, 2010; Anderson, 2010;. . . .)
|link comment||answered Jun 16 '11 at 13:25 Kimberly Expert|
The article “What have we learned from the past” written by Shummer (2005) summarizes the different studies that were already carried out on service learning by different scholars and researchers and thus the author with the help of those studies had the objective to discern directions for further future research. The author divided the article in three parts. In first part, the author presented some research reviews, than in second part he presented individual studies, and in the end he presented the conclusion. The author first present the review of “School Based Community Service: What we know from research and theory” Conard and Hedin [1989/1991]. This research recommended that service learning appears to be one of those philosophies/ideas that many societies view as respectable/good, but not give serious importance to schooling or to the broader society. The author further explained that research on service-learning was not a tranquil task because service is not a solo, simply definable action like writing down the notes of a lecture but it has an extensive range of plausible/conceivable outcomes and thus creating it tough to define the suitable dependent variables. The author has presented another research by the name of “Research on K-12 School-Based Service-Learning: The evidence builds” by Billing . The author mentioned that the trend of service learning was tripled with a span of 15 years. He further explained that in 1984, there was only 27% of the high schools had community service, whereas only 9% of the schools had service-learning. However, in 1999, 64% high schools had community service, whereas 83% of the schools had service-learning. according to author, the increase in percentages credit goes to the teachers and the management of the schools who realized the importance of service-learning because they enabled the students to focus on civic tutoring with a constructive youth improvement as there goals. They also expressed their concern that service-learning will may detract them from studies but still they want to volunteer themselves in this noble cause. it was also stated that service-learning was highly supported by the public because the components of service-learning were enough for them to encourage it. The components were vigorous involvement, thought fully prepared experiences; emphasis on community requirements, school community management, academic curriculum incorporation, organized time for reflection, opportunities for solicitation of skills and abilities, stretched learning opportunities, and building an intellect of caring other people. In the end, the researcher concludes that the influence and connotation of service-learning depend upon the subject of quality: of people; of concentration and period of the learning program. Furthermore, it also depends upon program strategic design, preparation, dispensation, and assessment of the experiences. By covering all these aspects the study able to identify specific indicators of quality that were crucial to addressed.
|link comment||answered Oct 09 '11 at 21:05 Margaret New member|
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