Chicago (Chicago Method of Style)
Please see the official CMOS website for details.
For disciplines which are considered Humanities (literature, history, arts), footnotes are preferred. For the social disciplines (sciences, social sciences), use in-text citations and a bibliography.
Turabian Style is often viewed as an equivalent of CMOS, but it’s only for student papers (not generally for professional use).
If it’s a direct quote, use a bracket, the author’s last name, the year, a comma, the page number, and then close the bracket. If the quote finishes the sentence, put the period after the citation.
“I can see why she wrote that, on the wall of the cupboard…” (Atwood 1986, 175).
If it’s an indirect quote where the speaker is already mentioned by name, you can just use the year and page number.
In Margaret Atwood’s The Handmaid’s Tale, the women find strength in a Latin pun once written by schoolboys (2001, 175).
Here are a few basics for an CMOS bibliography. Remember to watch for small details like punctuation.
Author Firstname Lastname. Title of Book. (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), pages.
Jane Doe. The Book, 2nd ed. (Springfield: Printer Press, 2001), 89-220.
If there are two authors:
Jane Doe and John Smith. The Book, 2nd ed. (Springfield: Printer Press, 2001), 89-220.
If there are more than three authors:
Jane Doe and others. The Book, 2nd ed. (Springfield: Printer Press, 2001), 89-220.
Article in Journal (print)
Author Firstname Lastname. “Title of Article,” Title of Book Volume number (month year): pages.
Jane Doe. “Writing,” The Writer’s Journal 27. (May-June 2001): 89-220.
Article in Journal (web)
Author Firstname Lastname. “Title of Article,” Title of Book Volume number (month year): pages, URL or doi (Date retrieved).
Jane Doe. “Writing,” The Writer’s Journal 27. (May 2001): 89-220, www.journalwritings.com (February 18, 2011).
“Title of Article,”(Name of website, date updated). URL (Date retrieved).
“Writing,” (Book History, January 1999). www.bookhistory.com (February 18, 2011).
Dissertation or Thesis
Author Firstname Lastname, “Dissertation Title” (dissertation or thesis, institution, year).
Jane Doe. “Writing through the Ages” (PhD dissertation, University of Writing,