i need to know what are grammer mistakes in this proposal its urgent


Date:  March 6, 2012

To:  Patrik Andersson, Managing Director, Bioprocess control

From:  Pavan Kumar Mokurala, Assistant Director, MS productions Pvt Ltd [ ]

Subject: Proposal for the Biogas production from Animal waste


As you know, the Animal waste management plays an important role in protecting environment from various polluting components such as contamination of water and degradation of soil fertility. This animal waste should be used in making better use of manure so that it can be helpful in protecting natural resources. Instead of misusing this valuable natural resource we can better use for producing biogas which can be helpful in many areas such as producing electricity, making global climatic balanced, reducing air and water pollution. I, Assistant Director proposed Biogas production from Animal waste will be beneficial to mankind and also helpful in preserving ecosystem in environment.

The Purpose of the proposal is to produce biogas from Animal waste which can help in producing electricity, maintain clean water. ‘Wastes from animals across 1.3 million farms which include livestock and poultry have capability to provide more nutrients, organic matter, solid materials and odor materials which may results to degradation of ground water quality, removal of fertility of soil and may be harmful to human health’ [2]

By keeping this in mind we have a proposal to produce biogas from animal waste which helps in generating power and as a nutrient for farms. In next 5 years waste generated from animals will be high as animals are important part of environment in either saving or degrading, so with our proposal we can help for good cause of reducing contamination from animal waste and use for good cause. So the scope of this project is also high.

The production of Biogas is a systematic process that involves a series of steps. Biogas also termed as Landfill gas is produced by wet organic waste decomposing under anaerobic conditions in a landfill. Biogas is a fuel gas (CH4 and CO2) obtained by anaerobic fermentation of biomass. Fermentation of biomass is performed by special microorganisms.

Figure 2: Biogas Production Procedure
(Source: Mohammad javad Asgari, 2011 <http://www.ipcbee.com/vol9/40-B10035.pdf>)

The whole Biogas production process is divided into three phases as shown in above figure:

• Hydrolysis
• Acidification
• Methane Formation

Hydrolysis is a process of breakdown of organic matter into much smaller organic matter that can be degraded by bacteria. Lingo-cellulosic material constitutes the major organic fraction of Municipal Animal Waste. Hydrolysis of lingo-cellulosic material is a major factor, which influences the level of the carbon source required for biogas production [4]. In this process the Animal waste is mixed externally with extracellular enzymes like cellulose, amylase, protease and lipase of microorganisms. Bacteria decompose the long chains of complex carbohydrates, proteins and lipase into much smaller units [5].


Municipal Solid Waste contains a significant fraction of lingo-cellulosic material. The acidification of these materials helps in the biogas yield [4]. Acid-producing bacteria, involved in the second step, convert the intermediates of fermenting bacteria into acetic acid (CH3COOH), hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). To produce acetic acid, they need oxygen and carbon. For this, they use the bounded-oxygen. Hereby, the acid-producing bacteria create an anaerobic condition which is essential for the methane producing microorganisms. Moreover, they reduce the compounds with a low molecular weight into alcohols, organic acids, amino acids, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and traces of methane[5].

Methane Formation

Methane producing bacteria, involved in the third step, decompose compounds with a low molecular weight. For example, they utilize hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetic acid to form methane and carbon dioxide. Under natural conditions, methane producing microorganisms occur to the extent that anaerobic conditions are provided. For vital functions of these bacteria that consume hydrogen also, stable temperature mode is very important. Although landfill sites are the sources of methane, the landfill gas needs to be purified to increase the methane concentration.

Current Scenario

Animal wastes generate contaminated gases which harms eco system these wastes are converted into biofuels which help in generating power. Today Countries such as America, India and China is trying to use natural biogas for transportation, electricity generation, which keeps Eco system balanced. At present animal waste cause many problems to mankind and environment such as contaminating water, stagnant of manure, due to more polluting components released from animals fertility of soil loses, contaminating polluting which effects environment. So our proposed program will help in solving all this drastic problems and this animal waste may be of various kinds like livestock, manure from poultry, manure form dairy. With the oil reserves of the world also being uncertain, it is very important that we switch to alternate sources as soon as possible. In order to overcome all this problems we had come up with a proposal called biogas generation from animal wastes.

Adapted from: http://sporkforge.com/prmimg/04f7/pcc4e3b05d036502i0005000023dd0020.png

The Proposed Program

In this proposed program we have come up with an idea of producing biogas from animal waste. Biogas is produced by the anaerobic (absence of oxygen) decomposition of manure into a gas mixture composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide.  This mixture used for producing heat, electricity, and fertilizers. Biogas from animal manure is the primary energy source which allows farmers to produce power, reduce contamination of water, Odor pollution, global warming emissions emitted from animal waste. Biogas which has produced by decomposition of manure anaerobically(absence of oxygen) into a gas mixture composed of 60% of CH4, 40% of CO2.this mixture used for generating heat, electricity, fertilizers.[1]

Adapted from:
(Source : <http://wikis.lib.ncsu.edu/index.php/BAE_578_2009_Manure_to_Energy_-_The_Real_Ratio>)[3]



There will be significant improvement in air quality because of biogas generation from animal waste. Animal waste will be significantly use as fertilizer in farms. Because of biogas generation greenhouse effect will be reduced significantly.

Qualification and Experience

I Assistant manager of MS productions Pvt ltd, have bachelor’s degree in Bio&Agriculture Engineering from North Carolina state university. In this department i have vast experience in which i have done internship in maintaining eco system and also participated in many seminars on biogas production from livestock and now I am serving as executive from past 5 years. As an executive officer I have conducted many activities in order to get awareness on environmental problems from wastes and their consequences on mankind. During my service I have successfully completed many projects such as livestock management, biogas from landfill waste management. I have put all my personal experience for this proposal.

In order to help the society I, wanted to contribute my part in maintaining balanced eco system with my proposal of biogas production from animal waste which can help in preventing from disasters in future which help in contributing greatly to world.



The Biogas plant estimated cost for the first year is represented in the above bar graph. The total budget of $2.6 Million should be distributed among all the essentials of the plant. The establishment cost will take 30% of the total amount which includes land cost, machinery cost, pipelining cost, chemical chambers cost etc, 10% goes to wages of employees, 5% goes to the raw materials cost which includes chemicals cost, water supply cost, feeding and operating plant cost etc., 25% goes to Electricity cost which is much cheap when considered to the electricity consumption of other fuel generation plants, 15% goes to gas collection tanks management and their daily service cost, and 5% is for storage of the dump which can be used as fertilizer for the agricultural lands



The biogas production from animal waste is an effective way to generate biogas for producing power, generating gas which helps in home applications. As this biogas is a renewable energy which is ecofriendly is cheaper than any conventional gas used help common man kind. As, an assistant director I have keenly observed the advantages and disadvantages of this biogas from animal wastes. I am looking forward to hear positive opinion and any discussions on our future advancements. If you have any queries you can contact me at (530)517-1864 or pavan.slc@gmail.com.

Works Cited

[1] "NRDC: Renewable Energy for America: Biogas." Insert Name of Site in Italics. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Apr. 2012 <http://www.nrdc.org/energy/renewables/biogas.asp>.

[2] (Source:<http://www.usawaterquality.org/themes/animal/default.html>).

[3] (Source : < http://wikis.lib.ncsu.edu/index.php/BAE_578_2009_Manure_to_Energy_-_The_Real_Ratio>).

[4] J.K. Bhattacharyya, S. Kumar and S. Devotta, “Studies on acidification in two-phase biomethanation process of municipal solid waste,” Waste Management. Vol. 28, pp. 164–169. 2007.

[5] "Landfill Biogas production process." Insert Name of Site in Italics. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Apr. 2012 <http://www.ipcbee.com/vol9/40-B10035.pdf>.


edited Apr 02 '12 at 21:56 pavan kumar New member

1 answer


run it through the Grammarly check system first!

link comment answered Apr 03 '12 at 14:33 Erik Czerwin Contributor

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