Correct APA Format


How do I adequatley reference an Air Force Instruction both on a reference page and in the text?


As of right now this is my reference

United States Department of the Air Force. (2012, August). Suicide prevention program (AFI   90-505). Retrieved from


and this is my citation within the text.

(AFI 90-905, 2012).

asked Jun 17 '13 at 04:10 Bethany Casper New member

2 answers


Your reference citation follows the APA format -- although your document date is incomplete. According to the copy of the document I retreived, the date should be (2012, August 10).


United States Department of the Air Force. (2012, August 10). Suicide prevention program (AFI   90-505). Retrieved from


With respect to your text citation, I'll quote Cornell University's guidance concerning the APA style. "The names of groups that serve as authors (corporate authors) are usually written out each time they appear in a text reference. When appropriate, the names of some corporate authors are spelled out in the first reference and abbreviated in all subsequent citations. The general rule for abbreviating in this manner is to supply enough information in the text citation for a reader to locate its source in the Reference List without difficulty."


So (U.S. Department of the Air Force, AFI 90-905, 2012). You should also include the specific page reference if applicable.

link comment answered Jun 17 '13 at 05:23 Jeff Pribyl Grammarly Fellow

During the Soul of the Next economy forum there was four key themes that were introduced. In my report I will be discussing social enterprise. What is social enterprise comprised of?  Social enterprise is comprised of entrepreneurial principles that organize, create, and manage change around a social issue. The social enterprise platform is to establish a profitable business, but also to make a change in society through positive development in the community. Social entrepreneurs utilize innovative ideas to society’s critical social problems and apply commercial strategies to maximize improvements in human and environmental well-being.  Maximizing social impact rather than profits for external shareholders is key to social enterprise. This can be structured as a for-profit or non-profit, and may take the form of a co-operative, mutual organization, a disregarded entity, a social business, a benefit corporation, a community interest company or a charity organization. Even though this is a definition, it really all depends where you are like Jill Andres, in the Social Enterprise Continuum video said, it depends where you’re geographically, philosophically, or ideologically.
Financial surpluses in social enterprises are reinvested in the venture and used to grow the solutions as maximizing profits and wealth accumulation is not a priority for these businesses. There are both benefits and challenges associated in any social enterprise. I will look further into a specific enterprise known as Bubbles car wash and their mandate of what a social enterprise means to them and how they address it.I will also be integrating social enterprise into how God views Business.

There are three categories in the Social Enterprise spectrum, purely philanthropic, hybrid, and purely commercial. Purely philanthropy’s general motive is mission driven. There aims are to appeal to good will and the creation of social values. Customers also don’t end up paying anything for their service or product.  Enterprises in the domain of hybrids have mixed motives. There is a balance between a social mission (how the enterprise views it’s role in making the world better) and market orientation (the enterprise meeting the wants and needs of it’s customers) in order to create both social and economic value. Customers do pay subsidized rates for the good or service or their are individuals who pay in full, or nothing at all. Their employees are paid below market wages and can be volunteers or fully paid employees.

Purely commercial is an enterprise that is completely market-driven. Their general motive is self-interest. Customers pay fair market prices. Investors provide capital and market rates. Employees receive market salaries and suppliers charge full market prices. With social enterprise it provides an opportunity for people who live locally to gain employment; introduce a change that is positive to the community. It provides a chance for people with low incomes to have a means of employment. There is also a sense of satisfaction knowing that you are making a difference to society in a genuine, and fulfilling way.  Business is also important to God and it enables individuals to express their God-given talents by participating in meaningful and creative work.  Like Van Duzer said: “When humans engage in creative, meaningful work that grows out of relationship and gives back to community they become more deeply human.” This relates to social enterprise because these entrepreneurs are developing an enterprise that thrives on the opportunity to earn profit but to also to provide a service that is improving our economy by creating value to it. Although, with benefits there becomes challenges. But it’s important to recognize that one can learn just as much from their challenges as they can with benefits when social enterprises are successful. Like any business, social enterprise can fail when the market changes or doesn’t work and despite the hard work and continuous effort, the goal for social change can take years to surface. Sometimes when enterprises begin to expand and grow and more people are hired, the original force and drive of their mandate can be lost or forgotten. There is also a double bottom line when it comes to social enterprise, trying to achieve a social goal while still sustaining financial gain. Tracey Wood, CEO and co-founder of agents of change Partners said: “Social enterprises almost have to be better than regular businesses to overcome the idea that somehow we are inferior because we are giving back.” She says no, every enterprise that she knows is a leader in their field and they give back, but they also do what they do, very well. This comes back to how Business Matters to God and how God wants us to express our talent we are given in a creative and meaningful way. Social entrepreneurs are creative in what business they want to flourish and make profit out of, but they also want meaning in what they do and want to give back.

I would like to highlight Bubbles Car Wash as an example of a company that implements social enterprise. They are a for-profit organization with a mandate to provide employment, mentoring, and advocacy for deserving members of the community.  Another important goal is being a capitalist and achieving financial success for themselves, their investors, but also a living wage for their employees. They believe that in order to balance profit ability and social change, they need to make a conscious effort by meeting with managers to discuss how the company is doing and discuss how the customers and employees are doing as well and what’s going on in the city that they should be looking out for. Andrew Bitcon, owner of Bubbles Car wash, says that these two goals aren’t always mutually exclusive. His example was when he first started out in the business and they employed a lot of single mothers. The problem was that the mothers were not getting to work on time because they needed to take the transit to get to day care to drop off the children an then come to work, which resulted in them coming late and also leaving early to pick them up.  They decide to use a van that they have a let the mothers come to work with the kids, and they will load the kids on it and drive them to daycare. It doesn’t cost them much but a bit of gas, but it’s a huge benefit for single mothers to get to work on time and leave in good time, which is a significant social change in social enterprise. A way that social enterprises does and what God want us to do, is to be good stewards of the environment and an example of what Bubbles Car Wash did was just that.  A couple years ago when there was  the big flood in Calgary, neither of the employees or the two Bubbles Car washes were affected. At first they thought that it was great new and that they would just carry on with their work. Until they realized that it wouldn’t be fair for them to be using water that most people in Calgary don’t have access too and earn a profit. So they willingly decided to stop the Car wash section of their business until the water comes back and would solely work on detailing, which is the other part of their business. The employees that worked on the car wash side were sent out to volunteer. This was the case where they had to take profit out of the equation and primarily think about the social benefits.

link comment answered Nov 07 at 06:38 Contributor

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