Can commas be used to seperate mutiple modifiers and long phrases,etc.

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Hi,everyone.I'm a ESL student,and I have been confused about the usage of comma for a long time.Here are some sentences I've read on The Economist.I don't know if these commas are used correctly or not.

  • 1.He has a message from king Fahd,believed to be an appeal for Arab Unity.

(Is the phrase behind the comma correct or it's a dangling modifier?I don't believe editors of TE could make such a mistake!)

  • 2.When G20 finance ministers meet in Mexico City in November in 2012,they should ask the WTO to launch the Global Recovery Round,and to finish it by the time of the WTO's next big meeting , in Bali in December 2013.

(At the end of the sentence,why to use a comma?)

  • 3.Make sure pensions are portable,between jobs and regions.

(why use comma?To stress?)

  • 4.The world's most vibrant economies are shifting gear , away from simply building wealth towards building a welfare state.

(Because it is too long?)

 

And the last one is about describing numbers in graphs.(not form TE)

  • 5.The figure for resources was highest in 1991, at 20%, and the proportion of spending on furniture and equipment reached its peak in 2001, at 23%.

(Is "at+nunmber " an appositive)

 

Could somebody help me!!!Thanks in advance!

commas asked May 10 '13 at 13:43 Tina New member

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