open compound noun + participle + noun: where should I place hyphens?

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When an open compound noun combines with a participle to modify another noun, where should hyphens be placed (e.g. "palm oil producing companies")?

hyphen modify asked Mar 13 '13 at 15:57 Tracey Barnes New member

2 answers


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I believe it should be palm oil-producing companies.  You could also simplify things by using palm oil producers. 

link comment answered Mar 13 '13 at 20:54 Patty T Grammarly Fellow
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The Chicago Manual of Style agrees with palm oil-priducing companies. Because "palm oil" appears in dictionaries as a single entry, you do not hyphenate "palm oil. producers"  If this noun phrase did not appear as a single entry in the dictionary, it would be palm-oil producers.

link comment answered Mar 13 '13 at 23:01 Jeff Pribyl Grammarly Fellow

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